Do I need an Outsourced CFO?

Whether you’re starting a business or are already established, you probably have many different concerns, including keeping costs under control, the instability of the economy and business climate, staffing/employee issues, and trying to figure out the best plan for your business’s future growth, profit, and security. Using an outsourced Chief Financial Officer (CFO) makes sense when considering all of these things. Below are some of the benefits of having an outsourced CFO on your team, as well as when to consider using such a service.

What Is an Outsourced CFO?

I’m guessing that we’re all familiar with the term “outsourcing”, regardless of whether that means somebody local or in another country. As it relates to CFO services, some of the more common services that an independent professional can do include preparing and analyzing financial statements (including balance sheet, income statement and cash flow). Additional services may include helping with future growth models and projections, assistance with a business plan, developing an operating budget, and more.

Benefits of an Outsourced CFO

Independent and Objective viewpoint: Unlike internal staff, an external consultant has no preconceptions or agendas in relation to the business agenda.

Creative solutions: Since many consultants have a breadth of experience in a variety of industries, they often bring a new perspective to operations that could be beneficial in the long run.

Networks: In many cases, an external CFO has connections in a variety of fields and industries that may benefit you, particularly for business growth.

When do you need an Outsourced CFO?

As I mentioned above, an outsourced CFO can help when starting a business, or during growth periods:

Start Up: Utilizing the knowledge of an experienced CFO to help you build the proper financial structure initially will pay off in the long run.

Business Growth: As the bookkeeping function starts to morph into something more than payroll, accounts payable, collections, billing, etc. a CFO is necessary to help the company with more advanced activities, such as financial statements and compliance.

Full-timer Is Unnecessary: There comes a time in every business when the financial portion of the company becomes more complex and begins to take up more and more time. However, there is also a gap between this period and the need for a full-time CFO. It’s during that gap when outsourcing CFO services makes the most sense.

Preparing Business Plans: Unless you have experience in this area, it’s best to work with a professional who knows how to prepare the documentation needed by funding sources.

Sounding Board: When a business owner seeks an objective, independent review of his/her business, having a dependable consultant to speak with may be invaluable, especially if it helps you to avoid a costly mistake later.

In the end, to determine if this model is right for your business, weigh the benefits against potential risks. Do your homework. Be diligent about keeping your finger on the pulse of your business and engaging with the chosen CFO through open and frequent communication. And if you’re in the Northern Virginia/DC metro area, contact me about CFO services.

As always, feel free to pass this along to others who may benefit from it, and if you have your own outsourced CFO experience, please share it!

Mistakes Small Business Owners Make That Can Cost Them…DOH…The Sequel

O.K., I lied. Two weeks ago, when I did the first part of this discussion, I said that I’d post part 2 the following week. I’m a week late, but I’ve had other things on my mind, like tax season, and keeping my clients happy. I think I have a good excuse.

Anyhow, if you recall, a couple of weeks ago, I started talking about ways that small business owners can get themselves into hot water, and how to avoid it. The following are a few more things…

1-Filing tax returns late: When tax returns are filed late, penalties and interest will be computed on any tax due. This is applicable for payroll tax returns, sales tax, income tax, pretty much any tax that can be levied. Don’t be under the wrong idea that filing an extension for any tax return will keep you safe. An extension only gives you more time to file the return itself; it’s not an extension of time to pay any tax. The late filing penalty will cost you 4 ½% per month, late payment is ½% per month, and interest is 3%. Additionally, pass-through entities (S corporations, partnerships, LLCs), while paying no tax of their own, can be assessed a penalty of $195 for each late filed K-1.

“DOH!” Just take care of filing all of your tax returns on time, and you can avoid all of these charges. It’s so easy!

2- Penalties: While I’m discussing the above, let me tell you about other penalties that you can owe, when you deviate from the straight and narrow. To name a few-failure to deposit taxes, negligence, substantial understatement, accuracy related, failure to have JayTheCPA prepare your return…April Fool’s, just kidding about the last one!

“DOH!” The point I do want to make here is that you really don’t want to mess around with tax preparation, or fall behind in tax filings. The additional charges can add up really quickly, and all of them are completely avoidable, by taking care of things timely.

3-Home office deduction: Over the years I’ve had many clients tell me that they don’t want to claim a home office deduction for their business, because they think it’s a red flag for an audit. It’s not necessarily a red flag but the rules for claiming a home office deduction are specific, in particular the rule that the area in your house/apartment must be used “regularly and exclusively” for business. What this means is that if you’ve got a desk set up in the den, which your family also uses to watch TV, or you work at the dining room table, where the family also takes meals and entertains, that’s not regular and exclusive use.

“DOH!” If your work space fits into IRS’s requirements, not only will your home office deduction save you on income tax, but it’ll save you on self-employment tax too, which is currently about 13 percent. It’s a completely legitimate deduction that should be taken, when applicable.

4-Not using a CPA: It’s my blog, and I’m allowed just a little bit of self-promotion, right? Let me start this with a statement; I don’t know much about I.T., printing, banking, law, or medicine. Or lots of other things, for that matter. I’m not qualified to do any of those. How about you; what qualifies you to be a bookkeeper/accountant/CPA/tax preparer? Probably not much, which is why you should have a CPA as part of your professional team.

“DOH!” You can pay a CPA more later, to clean up the mess that you made with your taxes or your books, or you can pay less now to have a qualified bookkeeper help you with the books, and a CPA help you with the returns. You can try to use Google to research things yourself, but do you really have the time? Can you keep up to date with tax laws? Kids, don’t try this at home!

I hope you’ve found this and the prior installment of “DOH!” moments helpful. Please pass this information along to somebody who might benefit by these sage words of wisdom, so you don’t wind up looking like this little guy, after you’ve been spanked by IRS with penalties!

Mistakes Small Business Owners Make That Can Cost Them…DOH!

I was recently the presenter at a small business roundtable discussion that was geared toward small business owners. The facilitator asked me to discuss some mistakes that small business owners make that can cost them money, and to come up with a title. I gave it about a half second of thought, and realized that he already gave me the title, but took out ‘money’ and replaced it with the play on words (dough, and Homer Simpson’s cry when he does stupid things). My presentation lasted about an hour, and I won’t bore you that long, but hopefully some of these items will help you prevent your own “DOH!” moment.

1-Former W-2 employees becoming business owners/independent contractors: When you’re an employee, it’s so easy to just fill out your W-4, claim single-0, married-1, or whatever withholding exemptions, and the employer deducts the taxes for you and pays them in to IRS and the state. All you have to do is file your tax return and get your refund. This all changes when you become a small business owner or independent contractor. There’s nobody to withhold tax and pay it in for you; you need to do it yourself! If you’re an unincorporated entity (sole proprietor, partnership, single or multi-member LLC), you need to pay your taxes in to IRS and state on a quarterly basis, via estimated tax payments. Not only do you have to pay income tax, but on the federal level you also have to pay in self-employment tax.

“DOH!” You can be subject to underpayment penalties if you don’t pay enough tax in during the year. The penalty is 3% of the underpayment, and a late payment penalty and interest can be assessed if you’re not paid in full by April 15th. This “DOH” moment can be avoided with proper planning (with help from your favorite CPA, of course)

2- Employee vs. independent contractor: In this case I’m talking about the people you pay, to do work for you. If you pay somebody as an independent contractor, you give her/him a check for whatever the fee is, and at the end of the year, if you’ve paid that person $600 or more, you give her/him a 1099-MISC. When you pay somebody as an employee, you have to withhold taxes, pay them in to IRS and state, file quarterly payroll tax returns, issue W-2s, pay state and federal unemployment insurance and other benefits. What an expensive headache…makes you want to just pay somebody as an independent contractor, right?

“DOH!” IRS and the states have stepped up their scrutiny of the misclassification of employees as independent contractors, and are coming down hard. The determination of employee vs. independent contractor is ‘facts and circumstances’ driven, and you need to understand this, before potentially owing all sorts of penalties and taxes. This one can cost you BIG time.

3-Not making payroll tax deposits: Sometimes a business owner will have cash flow problems, and will skip making payroll tax deposits, which can be a significant amount of money.

“DOH!” Taxes withheld from employees are not the employer’s money, but are considered ‘trust funds’, and must be deposited on a timely basis. The penalty for failing to do this is 100% of the amount that was supposed to be remitted. What’s more, the “responsible person” for making the tax deposits (generally the business owner) can be held personally liable for any tax not paid. Don’t even think of not making payroll tax deposits.

There are a bunch of other “DOH!” moments that I want to discuss, and now that I’ve gotten into this, I think I’ll continue this next week. If you’re not embarrassed, please leave a comment about a less than bright decision you’ve made while running your business, and please forward this article to anybody you know who could use some good advice. Stay tuned for part 2 next week.

The Risk of Fraud in Small Businesses

As small business owners, we wear many hats. For example, a restaurant owner can also be the procurer of supplies, chef, maitre d’, waiter, and bottle washer. One hat many small business owners tend to not wear is the bookkeeper’s, and therein lies the risk of fraud. To many, the lack of bookkeeping knowledge, hatred or fear of numbers, the need to focus on growing the business, or lack of time, drives the need for employing a bookkeeper.

In the accounting world, there’s a term called “segregation of duties”. In a nutshell, this refers to having different people do different accounting functions. For example, the person receiving customer payments isn’t also the person writing (or signing) checks. The problem in many small businesses is that they can’t afford to have an entire accounting department (such as accounts receivable, accounts payable, payroll), so all the functions are performed by the one bookkeeper. The danger here is that you’re entrusting someone with your money (i.e. your checkbook), and if that person isn’t honest, embezzlement can be the result. It’s beyond the scope of this article to get into the numerous ways a bookkeeper can “rob you blind”, but the point is that regardless of how busy the small business owner is, she/he needs to pay very close attention to what the bookkeeper is doing with deposits and payments, as it’s possible for both money coming in and money going out to be diverted. Bank statements should be reviewed for irregularities when received, blank checks should never be pre-signed, internal financial statements (such as a balance sheet and profit & loss printed from QuickBooks) should be reviewed, and payroll needs to be monitored, both for false employees and for pay rates. There are too many ways of misdirecting company funds, and the small business owner needs to be mindful of the possibilities.

I hope you’ve found this article helpful, and that it’s got you thinking. Please contact me if you have any questions, and if you know of any real life “horror stories” involving employee fraud, please leave a comment.

I Started a Nonprofit, and Now I Have to Do What??

You just formed a nonprofit organization. Congratulations on your altruism, and your chutzpah! Most people would’ve just made a donation to the charity of their choice, and considered that to be doing their part to help humanity, or the environment, or the planet, or something else. You’ve taken a step past that; a BIG step. You’re going to personally help further a cause that’s near and dear to you, and that’s beyond commendable, because you’re about to sacrifice yourself in ways that you may not have considered.

This is a brief discussion of some things that you’ve hopefully thought of, when you decided to form your nonprofit. For those of you considering starting your own nonprofit, think about these things before you take the big leap. The following issues have all arisen in discussions with clients, over the years.

I’m in business for myself?

In a word, yes! Starting a nonprofit is the same as starting your own for-profit business, except you’re using the public’s money. Until you’re large enough to have your own staff, you’re going to be the program director, development director/fundraiser, bookkeeper, and other positions, all rolled into one. Taking into consideration other ‘adult’ duties (i.e. spouse, parent, ”real job”, soccer practices, etc), when you add the responsibilities of managing a nonprofit business, you may run out of hours in a day.

I have to file what with IRS?

Just because you filed with the Virginia State Corporation Commission (SCC) to be a non-stock corporation, doesn’t mean that you’re done with the formation. When most people think of forming a ‘nonprofit’, they’re thinking of a 501(c)(3) public charity, as recognized by IRS. That doesn’t come automatically with your SCC filing. To be recognized as a public charity, Form 1023 “Application for Recognition of Exemption…” must be filed with (and approved by) IRS. The application is fairly rigorous, and is not rubber stamped, so make sure all the information is completely and accurately filled out, before submitting.

I need to be a bookkeeper too?

For us CPAs, this part is a breeze, but for the general public, maintaining accounting records can be a real drag. If you’re going to be a public charity using public funds (contributions), you will be accountable to the public as to how you used their money. By some means (yourself, a bookkeeper, etc) you will need to keep books and records of the organization’s finances, for different purposes, one of which follows, next.

I have to file what with IRS?

I know, you’ve heard that already. The issue is, filing that original application for tax exemption with IRS doesn’t fulfill your obligations to them forever. A report of one length or another must be filed with IRS annually. It can be as detailed and complicated as the Form 990 (Return of Organization Exempt From Income Tax), which is the “long form” 990, or can be the 990-EZ “short form”, or even the 990-N “e-postcard”. Which form you file is dependent on how much your gross receipts and total assets were for each tax year.

This article barely scratches the surface of things that you need to consider when you form a nonprofit organization (or think of forming one). Remember, you’ll be using other peoples’ money, and will be held to a higher standard than if you were in business for yourself. Be prepared!

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